TSitologiya i Genetika 2021, vol. 55, no. 4, 16-25
Cytology and Genetics 2021, vol. 55, no. 4, 309–316, doi: https://www.doi.org/10.3103/S0095452721040058

Inheritance of yield components and heterosis in spring durum wheat hybrids (Triticum durum Desf.)

Khomenko S., Fedorenko M., Chugunkova T.

  1. The V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat, NAAS of Ukraine, 68, Tsentralna Str., Tsentralne vil., Myronivka district, Kyiv region, 08853, Ukraine
  2. SI «Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics», NAS of Ukraine, 2a, Osypovskoho Str., Kyiv, 04123, Ukraine

SUMMARY. To analyze the results of hybridization on early stages of wheat breeding, it is important to choose a system of traits by which the selection of elite plants will achieve some genetic progress and lead to improved yield potential. As a rule, when analyzing various factorial traits in the first-generation hybrids, quantitative parameters of plant yield components, their inheritance pattern, and heterosis are determined. A new source material of spring durum wheat was created by means of intraspecific and interspecific crossings. The inheritance pattern of the main components of spike productivity in the first-generation hybrids of durum wheat has been studied. The inheritance by types of overdominance and partial positive dominance of spike length and grain number per spike was characteristic for the majority (64.3 %) of intraspecific F1 hybrids. The best hybrid combination (Melanopus 10–02 × Slavuta) was characterized by overdominance and positive dominance in the inheritance of all the traits studied; high degree of heterosis (DH) (64.7 %) by grain weight per spike was noted. Heterosis and inheritance pattern of the attribute «1,000 kernel weight» by type of overdominance was found in hybrids from crossing Melanopus 10–02 × Slavuta (hp = + 5.0; DH, % +9.9), Leucurum 06–07 × Saratovskaya zolotistaya (hp = + 13.0; DH, % +7.4), and Leucurum 06–07 × Kharkivska 29 (hp = + 17.0; DH, % +10.0). Among the parental components under study, the line Melanopus 10–02 has been selected and submitted to the State Qualifying Examination of the Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination. It was registered as the novel durum wheat cultivar MIP Raiduzhna. The promising perspective of the intraspecific cross combination Line 08–17 × Saratovskaya zolotistaya) was noted; these hybrids we-re characterized with heterosis for all the traits analyzed and with overdominance in their inheritance, it allowed recommending this cross for further genetic studies. Therefore, defining the parameters of plant productivity, the inheritance pattern, the degree of heterosis in the first-generation hybrids is an urgent task in creating new varieties, as well as in predicting breeding and genetic effect of crossing.

Keywords: Triticum durum Desf., intraspecific hybrids elements of productivity, degree of phenotypic dominance, heterosis

TSitologiya i Genetika
2021, vol. 55, no. 4, 16-25

Current Issue
Cytology and Genetics
2021, vol. 55, no. 4, 309–316,
doi: 10.3103/S0095452721040058

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