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Molecular-genetic mechanisms regulation of growth habit in wheat
SUMMARY. The vernalization requirement determines the need of plants in a prolonged period of cold treatment for transition from a vegetative to reproductive phase. The vernalization response in wheat is controlled by the alleles of Vrn genes. A molecular structure and causes which are basis of alternative alleles have been defined for the almost all Vrn genes. Vrn1, Vrn2 and Vrn3 interacts epistaticaly and form the positive feedback loop that is activated in winter wheat by the vernalization conditions. Vrn2 is critical for flowering repression in winter wheat before vernalization whereas Vrn1 in mostly determines of flowering time for spring varieties. In present review the studies of molecular mechanisms and genetic determination of pathways that regulate of growth habit (type of development) in wheat have been analyzed. The organization, structure and functions of the Vrn genes and their expression products are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the regulatory regions structure and the molecular mechanisms of these genes expression. The modern view on the model that includes of interaction between the Vrn genes and environmental during vernalization has been formulated.
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