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Metabolic engineering of the initial stages of xylose catabolism in yeasts for construction of efficient producers of ethanol from lignocelluloses
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Plant biomass possesses a huge potential as a source for biofuel production. The main components of biomass are glucose and five-carbon sugar xylose. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is used for industrial ethanol production from glucose is unable to xylose fermentation. Therefore a microorganism capable for efficient fermentation of both glucose and xylose has to be found in nature or constructed for economically feasible biomass conversion to ethanol. The active xylose fermentation could be performed by increasing the efficiency of initial stages of xylose metabolism . In this review the enzymes of initial stages of xylose metabolism in yeasts (xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, xylulokinase) and bacteria (xylose isomerase and xylulokinase) are characterized. The ways for construction of yeast strains capable of efficient alcoholic xylose fermentation are discussed.
Tsitologiya i Genetika 2008, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 70-84
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