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Recognition of pathogen attacks by plant immune sensors and their initiation of the immune response
SUMMARY. Plants lack specialized mobile immune sensors. Instead, each plant cell can recognize the attack of pathogens and trigger an effective immune response. The protection from pathogens is based on a system, detecting warning signs, which can come from the pathogen or from the host itself. Plants respond to infection by a two-level innate immune system. The first level recognizes and responds to molecular patterns, common for large groups of potential pathogens. The recognition of these patterns by pattern recognition receptors (PRR), localized on the plasma membrane, leads to pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). The second level responds to the virulence factors (effectors) of pathogens directly or through their influence on the host. The detection of pathogen effectors by intracellular or plasma-lo-calized immune sensors (ERR) leads to effector-triggered immunity (ETI). The article discusses current information on the mechanisms via which these receptors perceive patterns and effectors of pathogens and initiate immune pathways. New ideas about the structure and function of plant immune receptors have given rise to changes in our understanding of the cell surface and intracellular immunity and the interactions between them. Despite great fluctuations in the magnitude and duration of immune responses caused by different molecular patterns or effectors of pathogens during PTI and ETI, the immune sensors, localized in the plasma membrane or cytoplasm, activate similar molecular events, such as the activation of MAP kinases, the synthesis of reactive oxygen species, the influx of calcium ions etc., indicating that the immune signals initiated on the plasma membrane or in the cytoplasm converge at subsequent points. Despite great advances in our understanding of the functioning of plant immune sensors in recent years, many important questions re-main unanswered and require further research.
Key words: plant immune system, patterns, effectors, plant resistance proteins, NLR, NB-LRR, receptor-like kinases, receptor-like proteins, pattern-triggered immunity, effector-triggered immunity
E-mail: serhii.shamrai karazin.ua
|Coded & Designed by Volodymyr Duplij||Modified 01.02.23|