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Direction of genetic changes under the influence of new dimethyl sulfate derivatives in oil flax
SUMMARY. Two varieties of oil flax (Iceberg and Soniachny) were used to study the specificities of genetic variability under the influence of new chemical mutants, derivatives of dimethyl sulfate (DMS), in particular, the complex of 3-N,N dimethylaminosulfolane with dimethyl sulfate, diethylsulfate, the complex of N-oxide 2,6-dimethylpyridine with dimethylsulfate and the com-plex of N-oxide 2-methylpyridine with dimethylsulfate. The seeds of the abovementioned varieties were treated with aqueous solutions of mutagens in the concentration of 0.5 and 0.05 % and in the subsequent generations, the frequency and spectrum of induced mutational variability were estimated in comparison with those for classic mutagens DMS and EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate). It was demonstrated that chemical modification of the ini-tial compound changed the activity of its new derivatives considerably, which was manifested in the direction of genetic changes. New mutagens were characterized with much higher frequency of induced mutations as compared with DMS and demonstrated lower lethality in the estimation of plant survival in the generation ћ1. The highest mutagenic effect, as compared with other derivatives, was shown by the complex of DMS and 3-N,N dimethylaminosulfolane. The spectrum of hereditary changes, induced by new mutagens, differed from the spectra of both DMS and EMS in all the groups of the investigated mutations, which allows recommen-ding these compounds for the induction of changes of various directions. Certainly, as compared with EMS, the frequency of mutations, induced by new mutagens, was lower except for the mutation of the flower and color of the seeds. It was shown that among the new mutagens, the complex of N-oxide 2-methylpyridine and di-methyl sulfate was the most efficient to obtain mutations with impaired chlorophyll synthesis, the complex of N-oxide 2,6-dimethylpyridine and dimethyl sulfate for Iceberg variety and diethylsulfate for Soniachny variety Ц to induce mutations of vegetative organs, the complex of 3-N,N dimethylaminosulfolane and dimethylsulfate Ц to induce the mutations in the color of corolla petals and anthers, the color of seeds, mutations by physiological features of growth and development. We discuss the possibility of obtaining original mutants with increased content of oil and its changed fatty acid composition using the abovementioned compounds. The regularities observed can help in deeper understanding the influence of the specificities of the chemical structure of new DMS derivatives on their potential mutagenic properties and in targeted application of these compounds to induce mutations of a specific direction.
Key words: flax, chemical mutagen, dimethyl sulfate, dimethyl sulfate derivatives, ethyl methanesulfonate, mutation
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