ISSN 0564-3783  

Main page
Information to authors
Editorial board
Mobile version

In Ukrainian

Export citations

Seasonal differences in sperm characteristics and the level of DNA fragmentation in native and cryopreserved sperm of Saanen goats

Bogdaniuk A., Yurchuk T., Petrushko M.


SUMMARY. Seasonality affects the morphofunctional characteristics of reproductive cells, which makes the natural reproduction of dairy goats possible only in certain seasons. Cryopreservation of sperm, as part of assisted reproductive technologies, provides their flexibility, which increases the chances of increasing the number of livestock. However, it can cause changes in the morphofunctional characteristics and genetic material of sperm. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine seasonal changes in viability, motility and DNA fragmentation level of native and cryopreserved goat sperm. The experiment was conducted using ejaculates of sexually mature male goats of Saanen breed, obtained in breeding and non-breeding seasons. To detect the effect of seasonal differences of seminal plasma on the characteristics of cryopreserved sperm, cells were cryopreserved in ejaculate and following isolation. The results of the study showed that the motility of native ejaculate sperm in the breeding season was higher than in the non-breeding season (p ≤ 0.05). Cryopreservation led to a decrease in the number of motile sperm of ejaculate and the selected fraction of sperm in the non-breeding season, and the selected fraction of cells in the breeding season (p ≤ 0.05). When comparing the viability and integrity of sperm DNA, there was a significant decrease in all groups in the non-breeding season compared to the breeding season (p ≤ 0.05). It was found that the level of DNA fragmentation of goat ejaculate sperm in the breeding season after cryopreservation did not change compared to the native sample, while in cryopreserved sperm of the selected fraction of the same season increased (p ≤ 0.05). Cryopreserved spermatozoa of the non-breeding season in the ejaculate and isolated fraction had an increased level of DNA fragmentation compared to baseline before cryopreservation. Thus, it can be concluded that the composition of semen liquid varies depending on the mating season, which affects its cryoprotective properties against spermatozoa during the ejaculate freezing. Therefore, it is recommended to collect whole ejaculate by freezing in autumn and early winter to improve the effectiveness of artificial insemination using cryopreserved sperm of male goats of Saanen breed.

Key words: seasonality, cryopreservation, DNA fragmentation, goat spermatozoa, seminal fluid

Tsitologiya i Genetika 2022, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 16-24

  1. Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv
  2. LLC Institute of Contemporary Veterinary Technologies, Cherevky

E-mail: taisiya.yur, petrushkomarina

Bogdaniuk A., Yurchuk T., Petrushko M. Seasonal differences in sperm characteristics and the level of DNA fragmentation in native and cryopreserved sperm of Saanen goats, Tsitol Genet., 2022, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 16-24.

In "Cytology and Genetics":
A. O. Bogdaniuk, T. O. Yurchuk & M. P. Petrushko Seasonal Differences in Sperm Characteristics and the Level of DNA Fragmentation in Fresh and Cryopreserved Sperm of Saanen Goats, Cytol Genet., 2022, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 410416
DOI: 10.3103/S0095452722050036


Agarwal, A., Gupta, S., and Sharma, R., Eosin-Nigrosin Staining Procedure Andrological Evaluation of Male Infertility, Switzerland: Springer-Verlag, 2016, pp. 7377.


Al-Bulushi, S., Manjunatha, B., de Graaf, S., and Rickard, J., Reproductive seasonality of male dromedary camels, Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2019, vol. 202, pp. 1020.

Arrebola, F. and Abecia, J., Effects of season and artificial photoperiod on semen and seminal plasma characteristics in bucks of two goat breeds maintained in a semen collection center, Vet. World, 2017, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 521525.

Bailey, J., Morrier, A., and Cormier, N., Semen cryopreservation: Successes and persistent problems in farm species, Can. J. Anim. Sci., 2003, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 393401.

Ball, B., Vo, A., and Baumber, J., Generation of reactive oxygen species by equine spermatozoa, Am. J. Vet. Res., 2001, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 508515.

Barbas, J. and Mascarenhas, R., Cryopreservation of domestic animal sperm cells, Cell Tissue Banking, 2008, vol. 10, pp. 4962.

Belkadi, S., Safsaf, B., Heleili, N., et al., Seasonal influence on sperm parameters, scrotal measurements, and serum testosterone in Ouled Djellal breed rams in Algeria, Vet. World, 2017, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 14861492.

Bubenickova, F., Postlerova, P., Simonik, O., et al., Effect of seminal plasma protein fractions on stallion sperm cryopreservation, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2020, vol. 21, no. 17, art. ID 6415.

Chemineau, P., Malpaux, B., Brillard, J., and Fostier, A., Seasonality of reproduction and production in farm fishes, birds and mammals, Animal, 2007, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 419432.

Crespo, F., Quiñones-Pérez, C., Ortiz, I., et al., Seasonal variations in sperm DNA fragmentation and pregnancy rates obtained after artificial insemination with cooled-stored stallion sperm throughout the breeding season (spring and summer), Theriogenology, 2020, vol. 148, pp. 8994.

De Vries, A., Steenholdt, C., and Risco, C., Pregnancy rates and milk production in natural service and artificially inseminated dairy herds in Florida and Georgia, J. Dairy Sci., 2005, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 948956.

Dias, J. and Veloso, C., A influencia do fotoperíodo na reprodução do macho caprino e ovino, Res. Soc. Dev., 2020, vol. 9, no. 10, art. ID e4359108243.

Elsharnoby, H., Kandil, O., and Abu-Elnaga, H., Dromedary camel epididymal sperm characteristics at breeding and non-breeding seasons, Al-Azhar Bull. Sci., 2021, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 19.

Fatet, A., Pellicer-Rubio, M., and Leboeuf, B., Reproductive cycle of goats, Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2011, vol. 124, nos. 34, pp. 211219.

Fernández, J., Muriel, L., and Goyanes, V., Simple determination of human sperm DNA fragmentation with an improved sperm chromatin dispersion test, Fertil. Steril., 2005, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 833842.

Gamboa, S., Rodrigues, A., Henriques, L., et al., Seasonal functional relevance of sperm characteristics in equine spermatozoa, Theriogenology, 2010, vol. 73, no. 7, pp. 950958.

Garcia-Macias, V., Martinez-Pastor, F., Alvarez, M., et al., Seasonal Changes in Sperm Chromatin Condensation in Ram (Ovis aries), Iberian Red Deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus), and Brown Bear (Ursus arctos), J. Androl., 2006, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 837846.

González-Marín, C., Gosálvez, J., and Roy, R., Types, causes, detection and repair of DNA fragmentation in animal and human sperm cells, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2012, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1402614052.

Hamilton, T. and Assumpção, M., Sperm DNA fragmentation: causes and identification, Zygote, 2019, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 18.

Hamilton, T., Siqueira, A., Castro, L., et al., Effect of heat stress on sperm DNA: protamine assessment in ram spermatozoa and testicle, Oxid. Med. Cell Longevity, 2018, vol. 2018, art. ID 5413056.

Jiménez-Rabadán, P., Ramón, M., García-Álvarez, O., Maroto-Morales, A., et al., Improved cryopreservation protocol for Blanca-Celtibérica buck semen collected by electroejaculation, Cryobiology, 2013, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 251257.

Johnson, S. and Jones, R., A stochastic model to compare breeding system costs for synchronization of estrus and artificial insemination to natural service, Prof. Anim. Sci., 2008, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 588595.

Kopeika, E.F., Petrushko, M.P., Piniaiev, V.I., et al., Cryopreservation of reproductive cells and embryos of laboratory, agricultural and wild animals, Probl. Cryobiol. Cryomed., 2019, vol. 29, pp. 318.

Krishnakumar, S., Whiteside, D.P., Elkin, B., et al., Effect of reproductive seasonality on gamete quality in the North American bison (Bison bison bison), Reprod. Domest. Anim., Zuchthygiene, 2015, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 206213.

Li, J., Tvarijonaviciute, I., Molina, A., et al., Seminal plasma antioxidants are directly involved in boar sperm cryotolerance, Theriogenology, 2018, vol. 107, pp. 2735.

López-Fernández, C., Johnston, S.D., Gosálbez, A., et al., Seasonal changes in sperm DNA fragmentation of Murciano-Granadina goats: The compelling case for dynamic assessment, Small Ruminant Res., 2011, vol. 100, pp. 5053.

Love, C.C. and Kenney, R.M., Scrotal heat stress induces altered sperm chromatin structure associated with a decrease in protamine disulfide bonding in the stallion, Biol. Reprod., 1999, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 615620.

Martinez-Pastor, F., Guerra, C., Kaabi, M., et al., Season effect on genitalia and epididymal sperm from Iberian red deer, roe deer and Cantabrian chamois, Theriogenology, 2005, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 18571875.

Paramio, M.T. and Izquierdo, D., Current status of in vitro embryo production in sheep and goats, Reprod. Domest. Anim., 2014, vol. 49, no. s4, pp. 3748.

Pavlovych, O., Hapon, H., Yurchuk, T., et al., Ultrastructural and functional characteristics of human spermatozoa after cryopreservation by vitrification, Probl. Cryobiol. Cryomed., 2020, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 2433.

Peris-Frau, P., Soler, A.J., Iniesta-Cuerda, M., et al., Sperm cryodamage in ruminants: understanding the molecular changes induced by the cryopreservation process to optimize sperm quality, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2020, vol. 21, no. 8, art. ID 2781.

Recuero, S., Fernandez-Fuertes, B., Bonet, S., et al., Potential of seminal plasma to improve the fertility of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa, Theriogenology, 2019, vol. 137, pp. 3642.

Shahzad, Q., Waqas, M., Pu, L., et al., Seasonality and photoperiod influence in vitro production of buffalo embryos, Reprod. Domest. Anim., 2020, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 11151123.

Shcherbak, O., Trotskii, P., and Zyuzyun, A., Biotekhnolohichni metody oderzhannya i zberihannya hamet silʹsʹkohospodarskykh tvaryn, in Faktory Eksperymentalʹnoyi Evolyutsiyi Orhanizmiv, Kyiv: Logos, 2008, vol. 5, pp. 382385.

Sotolongo, B., Huang, T.T.F., Isenberger, E., et al., An endogenous nuclease in hamster, mouse and human spermatozoa cleaves DNA into loop-sized fragments, J. Androl., 2005, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 272280.

Suliman, Y., Becker, F., Tuchscherer, A., et al., Seasonal variations in quantitative and qualitative sperm characteristics in fertile and subfertile stallions, Arch. Anim. Breed., 2020, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 145154.

Üstüner, B., Nur, Z., Alçay, S., et al., Effect of freezing rate on goat sperm morphology and DNA integrity, Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 2015, vol. 39, pp. 110114.

Wrench, N., Pinto, C., Klinefelter, G., et al., Effect of season on fresh and cryopreserved stallion semen, Anim. Rep. Sci., 2010, vol. 119, nos. 34, pp. 219227.

Yurchuk, T., Petrushkî, M., Gapon, A., et al., The impact of cryopreservation on the morphology of spermatozoa in men with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, Cryobiology, 2021, vol. 100, pp. 117124.

Yurchuk, T.O., Pavlovich, O.V., Gapon, G.O., et al., Lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in fresh and cryopreserved spermatozoa of men at different spermatogenesis state, Ukr. Biochem. J., 2021, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 2429.

Zoca, G.B., Celeghini, E.C.C., Pugliesi, G., et al., Influence of seminal plasma during different stages of bovine sperm cryopreservation, Reprod. Domest. Anim., 2021, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 872883.

Copyright© ICBGE 2002-2023 Coded & Designed by Volodymyr Duplij Modified 27.09.23