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Assessment of genetic and reproductive state of Ulmus pumila and U. Suberosa invasive populations in the dnieper steppe to climat change
SUMMARY. The degree of interspecific genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity, embryonic death and seed viability, as well as the cytogenetic state of the Ulmus pumila and U. suberosa vegetative meristems were studied to determine the mechanisms of invasiveness of their populations in the Dnieper steppe under conditions of climate change. The U. pumila populations differed on indexis of the embryonic death, seed viability and seed productivity. Populations growing in more favorable environmental conditions are distinguished by a better reproductive, physiological, and genetic conditions. For the vast majority of used microsatellite loci, the studied populations were characterized by a relatively low level of genetic variability, an excessive homozygous genotype and a deficit of heterozygotes, which indicates a certain level of inbreediness of the analyzed plants. The largest heterozygous deficiency is found in the population of U. pumila with a high density of trees and significant rates of on seed embryonic death; a smaller deficit is in populations with a relatively large area and low density of plantations and, consequently, low rates of embryonic death. The low index of chromosomal rearrangements in vegetative meristems also confirms the insignificant level of genetic variability, the probable absence of hybridization and genetic homeostasis in U. pumila. The U. suberosa population was characterized by increased embryo death, seed damage, and low seed production which correlated with an excessive homozygous genotype. All studied U. suberosa samples on microsatellite loci were monomorphic. Generally, according to genetic and reproductive indicators, seed reproduction and expansion of U. pumila in the Dnieper steppe in conditions of climate change are not significantly limited. At the same time the seed reproduction and expansion of U. suberosa can be limited.
Key words: Ulmus pumila, U. suberosa, invasive populations, seed embryonic death, empty samara (parthenocarpy), heterozygosity, chromosomal rearrangements, Dnieper steppe
E-mail: kravetshelen gmail.com, blume.yaroslav nas.gov.ua
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