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Nucleus fragmentations in diploid-polyploid populations of the spined-loaches of the genus Cobitis
SUMMARY. An analysis of 11 diploid-polyploid samples of the spined loaches of the Cobitis of the aquatic systems of Ukraine showed that the increase in the number of micronuclei in the erythrocytes is positively correlated with the ploidy and cell size. In diploid individuals of parental species, micronuclei cells are on average 0,12 %, whereas hybrid triploids are 0,52 %, tetraploids are 1,39 %, and probable pentaploids are 4,72 %. Since triploid and tetraploid specimens in joint colonies tend to dominate diploid, it can be concluded that minor violations of the genetic apparatus, do not significantly affect on the fitness. Whereas an increase in the number of chromosomal sets over four is already accompanied by dysfunctions critical to normal life activity. This circumstance, obviously, has led to the absence or extreme rarity of the pentaploid states in the clonal vertebrates, whereas in the lower invertabrates, for example earthworms, the usual are penta-, hexa- and octo- and decaploid states. The latter is probably due to the fact that the minimum size of the genome in the earthworms is some times of magnitude smaller than that of teleosts, which allows lower invertebrates to increase the number of chromosomal sets more than four times.
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