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Cellular mechanisms of nuclear migration
SUMMARY. Subcellular motility, positioning and directional movement of the nucleus to the particular site of the cell or syncytia and sometimes intercellular translocation of the nucleus is accompanied by differentiation of cells and tissues, change of their function, growth and development of the organism and its response to stress, plant-microbe interactions, symbiosis, and various others processes in plants and animals. Relocation of the nucleus is carried and guided through the dynamic interaction between the components of the cytoskeleton and the nucleus itself via signaling, binding and linker proteins. The cell responds to external signals by mobilization and a polar reorganization of cytoskeletal components resulting in the displacement of the nucleus. The nucleus can be transported by the actomyosin or microtubule mechanisms with the help of dynein and kinesin. Plant nuclear migration mechanisms tightly connected with actomyosin. This mechanism enables rapid and long-distance transfer of the nuclei in response to environmental stimuli. An important role in the nuclear translocation belongs to linker protein complexes which are embedded in the nuclear envelope. These complexes connect and transmit signals from the plasmalemma to the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm as well as provide skeletal framework for a variety of subcellular compartments. Such changes in the protein composition, protein conformational modification, the displacement of the nuclear envelope linkers lead to the detachment of nucleus from the cytoskeleton and impact shape, mechanical rigidity and positioning of nucleus.
Key words: subcellular nuclear migration, cytomixis, cytoskeleton, motor proteins, actomyosin, linker protein complexes, plant and animal cells
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|Coded & Designed by Volodymyr Duplij||Modified 13.06.21|