In the present paper, detailed cytomorphological investigations in Oxyria digyna Hill. from Kashmir Himalaya–India have been reported for the first time. All the of 14 investigated popula-tions of O. digyna are diploid based on x = 7. Out of these in two populations 0–2B chromosomes have been recorded for the first time while 6 populations differed significantly in their meiotic characteristics. Meiotic abnormalities du-ring male meiosis observed include inter PMC chromatin transfer (cytomixis). Non-synchronous disjunction of some bivalents, laggards and bridges at anaphases and telophases. Consequent to these meiotic anomalies, microsporogenesis in meiocytes is abnormal resulting in to dyads, triads and polyads with or without micronuclei. The overall effect is seen in reduced pollen fertility. Unreduced pollen grains were observed in some populations, which differed significantly in their size compared to the normal (reduced) pollen grains. It is observed that a smaller frequency of pollen grains differed morphologically in Aharbal and Yosmarg populations. The remaining eight populations showed regular meiotic course, normal microsporogenesis and high percentage of pollen fertility (95.09–99.09 %).